Večno vprašanje: Kako pravilno nastaviti uplinjač?

Večno vprašanje: Kako pravilno nastaviti uplinjač?

»Menjal sem uplinjač z večjim (17,5mm, 19mm…) in se motor komaj da premakne.«

»Po menjavi uplinjača, mi skuter ne vžge več.«

»Zakaj mi po nekaj kilometrih vožnje zalije svečko?«

»Skuter gre ob menjavi originalnega filtra s športnim mnogo slabše!«

Ogromno takšnih in drugačnih podobnih vprašanj in veliko nepojasnjenih odgovorov. Da bi naredili temu konec, je ekipa SKUTERIST sestavila osnove delovanja uplinjača in nekaj nasvetov, s katerimi ga lahko nastavite primerno za vsakdanjo vožnjo. Če začnemo pri samem delovanju uplinjača. Uplinjač je naprava, v kateri se zmešajo zrak, bencin in olje. Zrak vstopi v uplinjač preko zračnega filtra, bencin in olje pa preko dovodnih cevi, ki sta prav tako priključeni na uplinjač. Originalni uplinjač ima za dotok bencina in olja ločeni cevki, saj količino potrebnega olja za optimalno delovanje 2-taktnega motorja določa oljna črpalka, ki se nahaja v bloku motorja. Enako število priključkov imata tudi večini že poznana tipa uplinjačev PHVA ter PHBG Black Edition (klasični PHBG ima v večini primerov le priklop za bencin). Ob mešanju snovi v uplinjaču pa se bencin spremeni v tisoče majhnih kapljic, ki lebdijo med molekulami zraka in skupaj preko sesalnega kolena ter lamelnega ventila potujejo v cilinder. Dobljena mešanica je lahko vnetljiva. Ko svečka v glavi cilindra požene iskro, mešanica eksplodira in potisne bat proti spodnji legi. Da bi bila kombinacija snovi v mešanici, ki vstopi v cilinder optimalna, je potrebno nastaviti uplinjač.

 

1. korak: najprej uplinjač montiramo in poskusimo skuter vžgati. Če nastavitev ni pravilna, se nam pojavi eden od sledečih »simptomov«:

Skuter trokira: »pokašljevanje« pri polnem plinu ne dovoli cilindru, da bi ga spustil v delovne obrate. Glavna diza je prevelika in jo je potrebno zamenjati z manjšo. Pozor: trokiranje lahko povzroči tudi uničena ali zalita svečka.

- Skuter mori oz. duši: Ob polnem plinu skuter ustvari zvok: »MOOOOOO…« in cilindra prav tako ne spusti v delovne obrate. Glavna diza (šoba) je premajhna, potrebno jo je zamenjati z večjo.

Ko z vstavitvijo prave šobe skuter lahko deluje v polnih obratih je glavna diza prava oz. je zelo blizu optimalni številki dize, ki jo bomo poiskali kasneje.

Glavna diza (šoba) je »preluknjan« vijak na sredini uplinjača pod »šaljčko«, ki je ponavadi pritrjena s štirimi vijaki.

uplinjac

diza

2. korak: v drugem koraku je potrebno zagotoviti oz. nastaviti pravilno mešanico pri polovičnem oz. majhnem plinu. Če skuter s polovico plina ne trokira ali duši, lahko ta korak preskočimo. V nasprotnem primeru, pa sledimo naslednjim navodilom. Če skuter pri majhnem plinu trokira pomeni, da je igla previsoko. Potrebno jo je spustiti, to pa dosežemo tako, da zaklopko na igli uplinjača premaknemo za stopnjo ali dve višje (odvisno od obnašanja motorja). Če skuter pri majhnem plinu mori oz. duši pomeni, da je igla prenizko. V tem primeru premaknemo zaklopko igle za stopnjo ali dve nižje in s tem iglo dvignemo.

igla uplinjaca

3. korak: Sedaj, ko smo nastavitve za vožnjo s skuterjem kolikor toliko optimizirali, nam ostane nastavitev prostega teka oz. »štantgasa«. Da je prosti tek motorja konstanten in da je kombinacija bencina in zraka tudi tu optimalna, je potrebno nastaviti oz. določiti količino zraka dizi za prosti tek. Dotok zraka reguliramo z manjšim vijakom, ki se nahaja nekje ob strani uplinjača. Z obračanjem vijaka v desno stran se dotok zraka zapira. Seveda je učinek ravno obraten, če vijak obračamo v levo. Ko je mešanica bencina in zraka pri prostem teku nastavljena, je potrebno nastaviti še obrate pri prostem teku. To dosežemo z obračanjem večjega vijaka ob strani uplinjača (ponavadi je nanj montirana vzmet). Optimalni obrati za delovanje prostega teka pri 2-taktnem motorju so med 1500 in 2500rpm.

vijak zraka

Če smo do sedaj upoštevali vsa navodila bi moral biti uplinjač skuterja navidezno nastavljen, med vožnjo pa bi moral skuter delovati odzivno, brez, da bi trokiral oz. bi ga dušilo. Prosti tek je umirjen in konstanten. S tako nastavitvijo naredite nekaj kilometrov in sledite naslednjemu koraku.

4. korak: Po nekaj prevoženih kilometrih se svečka na glavi cilindra obarva. Če je svečka obarvana čokoladno rjavo, na njej pa ni mokrih ostankov bencina, pomeni, da nam je nastavitev uspela in smo skuter pripravili na uživanje v vožnji vašega predelanega skuterja. V primeru, da je svečka suha in blede sive oz. skoraj bele barve pomeni, da je glavna diza še vedno malenkost premajhna. Potrebno jo je zamenjati z večjo, vendar ne pretiravajte. Dovolj je le za številko ali dve večja diza. Po menjavi se zopet zapeljite kakšen kilometer in spremljajte barvo svečke. Če je svečka mokra od bencina, barva pa je temno rjava ali črna pomeni, da je glavna diza prevelika. Zamenjajte jo z malenkost manjšo in se zopet zapeljite kakšen kilometer, da svečka spremeni barvo.

Prišli smo do konca. Če ste uspešno prišli skozi vse navedene korake, ste cilindru zagotovili dolgo življenjsko dobo in optimalen izkoristek moči. Naj pa omenim, da so koraki navedeni zgoraj informativni in posplošeni, saj je za »teoretično« optimalno nastavitev uplinjača še nekaj drugih dejavnikov, ki pa pri vsakdanji vožnji niso tako pomembni. Dodatnih optimizacij »navadni smrtnik« v praksi ne občuti, so pa prisotne pri tovarniško nastavljenih skuterjih in pa pri večini tekmovalnih skuterjev, kjer šteje vsaka stotinka sekunde.

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